Best practice guidelines for the design, production and presentation of vacuum formed tactile maps

Sources consulted

Amick, N., Corcoran, J. et al (1997), Guidelines for design of tactile graphics [on-line]. New York: American Printing House for the Blind. Available from [accessed 31 July 2002]. [<Back]

Bentzen, B. (1973), Appendix 4 in Sites, Perception and the Non-visual Experience: Designing and Manufacturing Mobility Maps, Kidwell, A.M. and Greer, P.S. New York: American Foundation for the Blind. pp 92-95. [<Back]

Clarke, C.R. (undated), Vacuum Forming and Braille Reproduction. Ammanford, Dyfed: C.R.Clarke & Co. (UK) Ltd. [<Back]

Clarke, C.R. (1993), Introduction to Thermoforming 3: Vacuum Forming. Ammanford, Dyfed: C.R.Clarke & Co. (UK) Ltd. [<Back]

Edman, P.K. (1992), Tactile Graphics. New York: American Foundation for the Blind. [<Back]

Gardiner, E.A.H. (2001), The Role of Tactile Maps in Environmental Education and Recreation in Areas of Managed Countryside. University of Manchester, PhD. Thesis (unpublished). [<Back]

Gibson, J.J. (1968), The Senses Considered as Perceptual Systems. London: George Allen and Unwin Ltd. [<Back]

Gilbert C.P. (1988), Touchdown Sheepville. Australia: Royal Blind Society of New South Wales. [<Back]

Gill, J.M. (1973), Design, Production, and Evaluation of Tactual Maps for the Blind. University of Warwick, PhD. Thesis (unpublished). [<Back]

Greenspan, J.D. and Bolanowski, S.J. (1996), The psychophysics of tactile perception and its peripheral physiological basis, in Pain and Touch, Kruger, L. (Ed.). San Diego: Academic Press. pp 25-104. [<Back]

Halton Borough Council (1997), Halton Revealed: Aerial Photographic Survey of Halton, surveyed in May 1997 at 25cm resolution. Halton: Halton Borough Council. [<Back]

Hinton, R. (1988), New Ways with Diagrams. London: RNIB.

James, G.A. and Armstrong, J.D. (1976), Handbook for Mobility Maps. (Mobility Monograph No.2). Nottingham: Blind Mobility Research Unit, Department of Psychology, University of Nottingham. [<Back]

Keates, J.S. (1973), Cartographic Design and Production. London: Longman Group Ltd. [<Back]

Krueger, L.E. (1982), Historical perspective, in Tactual Perception: a Sourcebook,Schiff, W. and Foulke, E. (Eds.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp 1-54. [<Back]

LaMotte, R.H. and Whitehouse, J. (1986) ‘Tactile detection of a dot on a smooth surface: peripheral neural events’, Journal of Neurophysiology, 56 (4), 1109-1128. [<Back]

Law, B. (1993), A Guide to RNIB's Raised Diagram Copying Service. London: RNIB. [<Back]

Lederman, S.J. (1974), Tactile roughness of grooved surfaces: the touching process and effects of macro- and micro-surface structure’, Perception and Psychophysics, 16 (2), 385-395. [<Back]

Mersey Valley Partnership (undated) Spike Island in the Mersey Forest [visitor leaflet]. [<Back]

Nolan, C.Y. and Morris, J.E. (1971), Improvement of Tactual Symbols for Blind Children,. [<Back]

1 June - 28 February 1969: Final Report. Washington, DC: Department of Health, Education and Welfare. [<Back]

OS (1939), 1:2,500 Lancashire, Sheet CXV.9. Southampton: OS. [<Back]

Perkins, C. and Gardiner, A. (1997), "What I really, really want": how visually impaired people can improve tactile map design in ICC 97. Proceedings of 18th ICA/ACI International Cartographic Conference: Stockholm, Sweden, 23-27 June 1997, Ottoson, L (Ed.). Stockholm: Swedish Cartographic Society. 4, pp 1159-1166. [<Back]

Schiff, W (1982), A user's view of tangible graphics: The Louisville Workshop’, in Tactual Perception: a Sourcebook, Schiff, W. and Foulke, E. (Eds.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp 430-453. [<Back]

Siekierska, E. and Labelle, R. (2001), Tactile mapping project at Canadian Federal Mapping Agency - Mapping Services Branch, in Proceedings of the 20th International Cartographic Conference, ICC 2001 Beijing China, August 6-10, 2001. Mapping the 21st Century, Scientific and Technical Program Committee LOC for ICC 2001 Beijing China (Eds.). Beijing: Chinese Society of Geodesy Photogrammetry and Cartography. 5, pp 2932-2942. [<Back]

Tatham, A.F. (2001 pers com), [<Back]

Theissen, N. (2000), Computer-aided Tactual Graphics (Getting Started…). Enfield, Australia: Royal Blind Society. [<Back]

Wiedel, J.W. and Groves, P.A. (1969), Tactual Mapping: Design, Reproduction, Reading and Interpretation. Washington, DC: Department of Health, Education and Welfare. [<Back]